About FEED

The Feeding Experiments End-User Database (FEED) was designed and developed by the Mammalian Feeding Apparatus Working Group supported by the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center (NESCent).


  • Concept and scientific requirements: Early work to convene a group of anatomists and physiologists to design and implement FEED began in 2006. The NESCent Working Group on Analysis and Synthesis of Physiologic Data from the Mammalian Feeding Apparatus is led by
  • Anatomy and Behavior Ontologies:
    • The Mammalian Feeding Muscle Ontology (MFMO) was developed by a group of anatomists and ontologists in a 2012 Ontology Workshop funded by NSF-DBI-1062333. The contributors to the MFMO were A. W. Crompton (Harvard University), Robert E. Druzinsky (University of Illinois at Chicago), Rebecca Z. German (Northeast Ohio Medical University), Melissa A. Haendel (Oregon Health & Science University), Anthony Herrel (CNRS Paris), Susan W. Herring (University of Washington), Hilmar Lapp (NESCent), Paula Mabee (University of South Dakota), Christopher J. Mungall (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory), Christopher J. Vinyard (Northeast Ohio Medical University), Christine E. Wall (Duke University), and Susan H. Williams (University of Ohio, Athens).
    • The Oro/Pharyngeal Behavior Ontology was developed by the Mammalian Feeding Working Group.
    • The Phenotype Research Coordination Network supported our work in developing the ontologies.
    • Both ontologies can be accessed at https://code.google.com/p/feedontology/
  • Database and application programming: FEED v1 was developed by Vladimir Gapeyev (NESCent), Hilmar Lapp (NESCent), Xianhua Liu (NESCent). FEED v2 was developed by Squishymedia, Inc. (Portland, OR), Hilmar Lapp (NESCent), and Chris Wall (Duke).



Data available publicly from this site are released to the public domain under the Creative Commons Zero waiver. Images are © by the creator and available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license. All other content is © by the Mammalian Feeding Working Group and available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.

Publications and How to Cite

If you use the FEED data, ontologies, or application, or publish results attained from it, please cite as follows:
Wall, C. E., Vinyard, C. J., Williams, S. H., Gapeyev, V., Liu, X., Lapp, H., and German, R. Z. 2011. Overview of FEED, the Feeding Experiments End-User Database. Integrative and Comparative Biology 51(2):215-223. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/icb/icr047.


  • To contact us to request permission to register as a data contributor, to provide feedback, or to report bugs, send an email to feeddb-contact@duke.edu.

Source Code

Source code is available at Github under the GPL v3 license.